The Specific Immune Response

Vibrio cholera and Salmonella are two types of fatal bacteria which cause serious intestinal infections followed by death if untreated. If they are submitted to high temperatures, the bacteria die but their antigens are preserved.

Observe well the below experiments.

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Note that:

– The variable used here is the type of the antigen. (Different bacteria).

– Ten Days duration was enough for the chicken to develop an effective immune response.

Interpret them, what do you deduce?

In the first experiment, the injection of KILLED Salmonella into a chicken followed by the injection of the same fatal LIVE bacteria after 10 days, leads to the survival of the animal. Likewise, in the second experiment, the injection of KILLED Cholera into another chicken followed by the injection of the same fatal bacteria but LIVE into the same chicken (after the same period of time as in the first experiment 10 days) leads to the survival of the animal. This signifies that in both cases, the first exposure to the  killed bacteria  immunized the animal against the fatal microbes.

In the third experiment, the injection of killed Salmonella into a chicken followed by the injection of a DIFFERENT type of living bacteria (Cholera) into the same chicken 10 days later could not prevent the death of the animal. Likewise, in the fourth experiment, the injection of killed Cholera into another chicken followed by the injection of a DIFFERENT  living bacteria (Salmonella) into the same chicken 10 days later could not prevent the death of the animal too. This signifies that the first exposure to the killed bacteria could immunize the animal only against the same type of bacteria and not against a different type of bacteria.

We deduce that the immune system is effectively specific against the antigen to which it was already exposed to, in the inactive form.

Be specific Smile and live happily ever after Smile

Yusser CHIDIAC

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